In-plane effect on out-of-plane capacity of separated infill wall

Document Type : Research


1 Assistant Professor, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Fereydan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Daran, Isfahan, IRAN

2 Assistant Professor, Road, Housing & Urban Development Research Center, Tehran, IRAN


In this paper, by using a finite element model, the in-plane drift effect on the out-of-plane behavior of the infilled frame with weak infill walls has been calculated. Therefore, the out-of-plane and in-plane interaction for infill walls of different slenderness/aspect ratios, bond tension strengths and separated gap types, has been evaluated. The results are shown that infill walls having full contact at the top of the wall but isolated from columns have larger out-of-plane capacities than those isolated from beam and columns. However, infill walls having full contact at the top are more vulnerable to in-plane drifts. Also, the effect of the in-plane drift on the out-of-plane capacity of the separated infill wall can be noticeable. The results are indicated the out-of-plane capacity of the separated infill wall has been found to be inversely proportional to slenderness ratio and aspect ratio values and directly proportional to bond tension strength.


1. Drysdale, R.G., and A.S. Essawy, (1988). Out-of-Plane Bending of Concrete Block Walls. Journalof the Structural Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 114, No. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1988)114:1(121)]
2. Haseltine, B., Vest, H.W.H., and Tutt, J. N.,(1977), "Design of Walls to Resist Lateral Loads", The Structural Engineers, Pt 2, Vol. 55, No. 10, pp 422-430.STl, pp. 121-133.
3. Hendry, A. W. and A. M. A. Kheir, (1976). The Lateral Strength of Certain Brickwork Panels, Proceedings of the Fourth International Brick Masonry Conference; l. Brugge, Belgium, pp. 4.a..3.1-4.a.3.4.
4. Dawe, J. L. and C. K. Seah, (1989), "Out-of-plane resistance of concrete masonry infilled panels." Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 16(6): 854-864. [DOI:10.1139/l89-128]
5. Angel, R., Abrams, D. P.,(1994), ''out of plane strength evaluation of URM infill panels'' NCEER-94- 0004
6. Klingner R. E., Rubiano N. R., Bashandy T. R., and Sweeney S. C. (1996), ''Evaluation and analytical verification of shaking table data from infilled frames. Part 2: Out of plane behavior.'' Proc., 7th North Am. Masonry Conf., 521-532.
7. Flanagan RD, Bennett RM. , (1999), "Bidirectional behavior of structural clay tile infilled frames". J Struct Eng;125(3):236-44. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1999)125:3(236)]
8. Calvi, G.M., Bolognini D., (2001), "Seismic response of RC frames infilled with weakly reinforced masonry panels", Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 5(2), 153-185. [DOI:10.1080/13632460109350390]
9. Agnihotri P., Singhal V., Rai D. C.,(2013), "Effect of in-plane damage on out-of-plane strength of unreinforced masonry walls", Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, UP 208016, India [DOI:10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.09.004]
10. Dolatshahi K. Maref., A. J., Yekrangnia M., (2014), "Bidirectional Behavior of Unreinforced Masonry Walls, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, Published Online In Wiley Online, Doi: 10.1002/Eqe.2455 [DOI:10.1002/eqe.2455]
11. Hak S., Morandi P., Magenes G.,(2014), "Out-of-plane experimental response of strong masonry infills", second europian conference on earthquake engineering and seismology
12. Akhoundi, F. et al., (2015), "In-plane and out-of-plane experimental characterization of RC masonry infilled frames". In J.F.S. Gomes & S.A. Meguid, eds. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Mechanics and Materials in Design. Ponta Delgada, pp.427-440.
13. Furtado, A., Rodrigues, H., Arêde, A., and Varum, H. (2016). Experimental eval-uation of out-of-plane capacity of masonry infill walls. Eng. Struct. 111, 48-63. doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.12.013 [DOI:10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.12.013]
14. AL-Chaar, G., ISSA, M. and Sweeney S.,(2002) "Behavior of masonry- infilled no ductile reinforced concrete frames", J. of Struct. Eng., 128(8), pp. 1055-1063. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:8(1055)]
15. Verlato N., Guidi G., da Porto F. and Modena C. (2016), "Experimental testing and numerical modelling of infill masonry walls subjected to in-plane damage", 9th International Masonry Conference, University of Minho & IMS
16. Maheri, M. R., Najafgholipour, M. A., Rajabi, A. R.,(2011), "The influence of mortar head joints on the in-plane and out of plane seismic strength of brick masonry walls", Iranian J. Science and Technology, 2011; 35: 63-79.
17. Najafgholipour, M.A., Maheri, M.R., Lourenço, P.B., (2013), "Capacity interaction in brick masonry under simultaneous in-plane shear and out-of-plane bending loads", Construction and Building Materials, 2013; 38: 619-626. [DOI:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.08.032]
18. Dafnis, A., H. Kolsch and H. Reimerdes, (2002), "Arching in Masonry Walls Subjected to Earthquake Motions." Journal of Structural Engineering 128(2): 153-159. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:2(153)]
19. Dazio, A., (2008), Effect of boundary conditions on the out-of-plane behavior of unreinforced masonry walls. 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Beijing, China.
20. Tu, Y.-H., T.-H. Chuang, P.-M. Liu and Y.-S. Yang ,(2010), "Out-of-plane shaking table tests on unreinforced masonry panels in RC frames." Engineering Structures 32(12): 3925-3935. [DOI:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.08.030]
21. Mosalam, K.M. and S. Günay, (2015), "Progressive Collapse Analysis of RC Frames with URM Infill Walls Considering In-Plane/Out-of-Plane Interaction," Earthquake Spectra, May 2015, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 921-943 [Featured on the cover of the journal issue]. [DOI:10.1193/062113EQS165M]
22. Kadysiewski, S. and K.M. Mosalam, (2009), "Modelling of Unreinforced Masonry Infill Walls Considering In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Interaction," Proceedings of the 11th Canadian Masonry Symposium, May 31-June 3, 2009, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 10 pp.
23. Furtado, A., Rodrigues, H., Arede, A., and Varum, H. (2015). Simplified macro-model for infill masonry walls considering the out-of-plane behaviour. Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn. 45, 507-524. doi:10.1002/eqe.2663 [DOI:10.1002/eqe.2663]
24. Simulia (2014)a. Abaqus FEA. Providence: Dassault Sys-tèmes Simulia Corporation.
25. Jia.L.J & Kuwamura H.(2014), "Prediction of Cyclic of Mild Steel at Large Plastic Strain Using Coupon Test Results", journal of structural engineering,140(2) [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000848]
26. Stavridis, A. & Shing., P.B. 2009, "Finite Element Mod‌eling of Nonlinear Behavior of Masonry-Infilled RC Frames". In, Journal of Structural Engineering 136(3): 285-296. [DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.116]
27. Crisafulli F. J., (1997), "Seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete structure with masonry infill", A thesis for doctor of philosophy, department of civil engineering, university of Canterbury, New Zealand
28. Van Der Pluijm, R. (1992). "Material properties of masonry and its components under tension and shear." 6th Canadian Masonry Symposium. Saskatchewan Canada, 675-686.
29. Abbas Moustafa, (2012), Earthquake-Resistant Structures-Design, Assessment And Rehabilitation, Published by InTech Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia [DOI:10.5772/2460]
30. Keyvani, A. and Mahdi T., (2017), "Reducing the In-plane Effect of Infill on Steel Moment Frame", International Journal of Steel Structures, September 30
31. Lourenco, P.B. (1996). "Computational strategies for masonry structures". PhD diss., TU Delft, Delft University of Technology.
32. Keyvani, A. and Mahdi T., (2017), "Nonlinear Modeling of the Infill Wall Based on the Brittle Cracking Model", Numerical Methods in Civil Engineering, Jun 30