The impact of environmental conditions of Persian Gulf on the probability of chloride corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures

Document Type : Research


1 PhD candidate, Department of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

2 University of Tehran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Arak branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran

4 Department of Civil Engineering, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Civil Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran


According to the technical literature, the amount of chloride that is transported by air from the sea surface depends on the amount of salt in the seawater in that area, the speed and direction of the wind, and the distance from the sea. Accordingly, data on the highest annual wind speed and direction of the wind are collected in several reinforced concrete structures (RC structures) in southern cities near the Persian Gulf at different distances from the sea. In this paper, by applying probabilistic modeling and utilizing the Hasofer–Lind and Rackwitz–Fiessler (HL-RF) method of reliability by aligning the enhanced Colliding Bodies Optimization method (ECBO) algorithm, and utilizing the data from the National Meteorological Organization, for concrete structures located in different distances with different speeds and directions of the wind from the Persian Gulf, the time of chloride corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures and the durability of these structures has been surveyed.


Main Subjects

[1] A. Costa and J. Appleton, "Chloride penetration into concrete in a marine environment—Part I: Main parameters affecting chloride penetration," Mater. Struct., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 252–259, May 1999.
[2] A. Neville, "Chloride attack of reinforced concrete: an overview," Mater. Struct., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 63–70, Mar. 1995.
[3] M. Ghanooni-Bagha, S. Zarei, H. R. Savoj, and M. A. Shayanfar (2019). Time-dependent Seismic Performance Assessment of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Frames. Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 63(2), 631-640.
[4] M. A. Shayanfar and M. Ghanooni-Bagha, "A Study Of Corrosion Effects Of Reinforcements On The Capacity Of Bridge Piers Via The Nonlinear Finite Element Method," Sharif J. Civ. Eng., vol. 28–2, no. 3, pp. 59–68, 2012.
[5] Shayanfar, M., Savoj, H., Ghanooni-Bagha, M., Khodam, A. (2018). "The effects of corrosion on seismic performance of reinforced concrete moment frames", Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, 5(2), pp. 146-159.
[6] FIB Model Code, vol. 1. Lausanne, Switzerland: International Federation for Structural Concrete, 2010.
[7] Model Code for service life design - Bulletin34. Federation International, 2006.
[8] M. A. Shayanfar, M. A. Barkhordari, and M. Ghanooni-Bagha, "Estimation of Corrosion Occurrence in RC Structure Using Reliability-Based PSO Optimization," Period. Polytech. Civ. Eng., vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 531–542, 2015.
[9] A. Kaveh, M.S. Massoudi, and M. GhanooniBagha. (2014), "Determination of Structural Reliability Using Charged System Search Algorithm", IJIT, Transaction of Civil Engineering, Vol. 38, No. C2, pp 1-10.
[10] M. Shekarchi, P. Ghods, R. Alizadeh, M. Chini, and M. Hoseini, "Durapgulf, a local service life model for the durability of concrete structures in the South of Iran," Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 33, pp. 77–88, 2008.
[11] A. A. Ramezanianpour, T. Parhizgar, A. R. Pourkhorshidi, and A. M. Raeesghasemi, "Assessment of Concrete Durability With Different Cement and Pozzolans in Persian Gulf Environment," Technical Report, 2006.
[12] M. Ghanoonibagha, M. A. Shayanfar, S. Asgarani, and M. and Zabihi Samani, "Service-Life Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Tidal Zone," J. Mar. Eng., vol. 12, no. 24, 2017.
[13] GhanooniBagha M, Asgarani S. (2017). "Influence of effective chloride corrosion parameters variations on corrosion initiation". IQBQ. 17 (3) :69-77.
[14] T. Ohta, "Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Exposed to Sea Air," Spec. Publ., vol. 126, pp. 459–478, 1991.
[15] M. Morcillo, D. De la Fuente, I. Díaz, and H. Cano, "Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel," Rev. Metal., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 426–444, Oct. 2011.
[16] D. E. Spiel and G. D. Leeuw, "Formation and production of sea spray aerosol," J. Aerosol Sci., vol. 27, pp. S65–S66, Sep. 1996.
[17] J. W. Fitzgerald, "Marine aerosols: A review," Atmospheric Environ. Part Gen. Top., vol. 25, no. 3–4, pp. 533–545, Jan. 1991.
[18] A. A. Ramezanianpou, E. Jahangiri, F. Moodi, and B. Ahmadi, "Assessment of the Service Life Design Model Proposed by fib for the Persian Gulf Region," JOC, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 101–112, Apr. 2014.
[19] E. C. Bentz, "Probabilistic Modeling of Service Life for Structures Subjected to Chlorides," ACI Mater. J., vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 391–397, 2003.
[20] J. Zuquan, Z. Xia, Z. Tiejun, and L. Jianqing, "Chloride ions transportation behavior and binding capacity of concrete exposed to different marine corrosion zones," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 177, pp. 170–183, Jul. 2018.
[21] D. V. Val and M. G. Stewart, "Reliability Assessment of Ageing Reinforced Concrete Structures—Current Situation and Future Challenges," Struct. Eng. Int., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 211–219, May 2009.
[22] M. Ghanooni-Bagha, M.A. Shayanfar, O. Reza-zadeh, M. Zabihi-Samani., (2017). "The effect of materials on the reliability of reinforced concrete beams in normal and intense corrosions", Journal of EKSPLOATACJA I NIEZAWODNOSC, 19, no. 3: 393.
[23] S. Feliu, M. Morcillo, and B. Chico, "Effect of Distance from Sea on Atmospheric Corrosion Rate," CORROSION, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 883–891, Sep. 1999.
[24] Seyedreza Alinaghimaddah, Mohsenali Shayanfar, Mohammad Ghanooni-Bagha. "Effect of distance from the sea on reinforced concrete chloride corrosion probability". AUT Journal of Civil Engineering, 2019, -. doi: 10.22060/ajce.2019.16672.5597
[25] M. E. R. Gustafsson and L. G. Franzén, "Dry deposition and concentration of marine aerosols in a coastal area, SW Sweden," Atmos. Environ., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 977–989, Mar. 1996.
[26] M. E. R. Gustafsson and L. G. Franzén, "Inland transport of marine aerosols in southern Sweden," Atmos. Environ., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 313–325, Jan. 2000.
[27] M. Morcillo, B. Chico, L. Mariaca, and E. Otero, "Salinity in marine atmospheric corrosion: its dependence on the wind regime existing in the site," Corros. Sci., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 91–104, Jan. 2000.
[28] Hasandoost, Ali Akbar, Amir Karimi, Mohsen Ali Shayanfar, and Mohammad Ghanooni-Bagha. "Probabilistic evaluation of chloride-induced corrosion effects on design parameters of RC beams." European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering (2023): 1-15.
[29] Jafary, Amirhossein, Mohsenali Shayanfar, and Mohammad Ghanooni-Bagha. "Investigation on the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures in different distances from the Sea." Amirkabir Journal of Civil Engineering Articles in Press (2022).
[30] ZACCHEI, Enrico; BASTIDAS-ARTEAGA, Emilio. Multifactorial Chloride Ingress Model for Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Unsaturated Conditions. Buildings, 2022, 12.2: 107.
[31] VALDÉS, Cecilia, et al. Atmospheric corrosion study of carbon steel in Havana waterfront zone. In: Proceedings of the International Conference of Sustainable Production and Use of Cement and Concrete. Springer, Cham, 2020. p. 329-337.
[32] Guerra JC, Castañeda A, Corvo F, Howland JJ, Rodríguez J. Atmospheric corrosion of low carbon steel in a coastal zone of Ecuador: Anomalous behavior of chloride deposition versus distance from the sea. Materials and Corrosion. 2019 Mar;70(3):444-60.
[33] Chateauneuf A, Messabhia A, Ababneh A. Reliability analysis of corrosion initiation in reinforced concrete structures subjected to chlorides in the presence of epistemic uncertainties. Structural Safety. 2020 Sep 1;86:101976.
[34] Truong QC, El Soueidy CP, Li Y, Bastidas-Arteaga E. Probability-based maintenance modeling and planning for reinforced concrete assets subjected to chloride ingress. Journal of Building Engineering. 2022 May 19:104675.
[35] ACI222 - Corrosion of materials in concrete, vol. 82. USA: ACI Committee, 1985.
[36] Iran Concrete Regulations (ABA), 2nd Edition. Iran: 2021.
[37] Y.-C. Ou, H.-D. Fan, and N. D. Nguyen, "Long-term seismic performance of reinforced concrete bridges under steel reinforcement corrosion due to chloride attack: LONG-TERM SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF CORRODED RC BRIDGES," Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., p. n/a-n/a, May 2013.
[39] C. G. Nogueira and E. D. Leonel, "Probabilistic models applied to the safety assessment of reinforced concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress," Eng. Fail. Anal., vol. 31, pp. 76–89, Jul. 2013.
[40] Saassouh, B. and Lounis Z. (2012). "Probabilistic modeling of chloride-induced corrosion in concrete structures using first- and second-order reliability methods." Cement and Concrete Composites 34(9): 1082-1093.
[41] M. A. Shayanfar, M. Ghanooni-Bagha, and E. Jahani, Reliability Theory of Structures. Second Edition,  Iran: Iran University of Science and Technology, 2019.
[42] M. A. Shayanfar and E. Jahani, "Reliability Index in ABA Design Code," Amirkabir J. Civ. Eng., vol. 42, no. 01, pp. 41–46, 2010.
[43] A. Kaveh, and V. R. Mahdavi, (2014). "Colliding bodies optimization: a novel meta-heuristic method", Computers & Structures, 139, 18-27.
[44] A. Kaveh, and M. I. Ghazaan, (2014). "Enhanced colliding bodies optimization for design problems with continuous and discrete variables", Advances in Engineering Software, 77, 66-75.