Volume 3, Issue 3 (3-2019)                   NMCE 2019, 3(3): 40-49 | Back to browse issues page

BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Ghannadiasl A, Gharibi Asl A. Optimization of consumed steel, opening height and location in RC beams by genetic algorithms. NMCE. 2019; 3 (3) :40-49
URL: http://nmce.kntu.ac.ir/article-1-198-en.html
Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran , aghannadiasl@uma.ac.ir
Abstract:   (167 Views)
In the construction of modern buildings, many pipes and ducts are necessary to accommodate essential services like water supply, sewage, etc. These pipes and ducts are usually placed underneath the concrete beams. However, for aesthetic reasons, they are covered by a suspended ceiling. Thus, to avoid increasing the height of the ceiling and dead load floor, it is more productive to pass the pipes and ducts through the beams of the ceiling. For this purpose, beams should be designed with openings. In this paper, beams with three spans and two types of uniform and non-uniform cross sections are modeled in SAP. Then beams are subjected to gravity and lateral loads and then analyzed. The results of SAP (flexural moment and shear force) are substituted in MATLAB code. Most appropriate opening positions are identified at  different parts of the spans in the code and it is observed that the weight of the consumed steel in uniform beam is more than the others in greater gravity load and a large hole. Finally, steel weight is optimized once for a specified cross-section of the beam with different heights of the hole and once again for a specified height of the hole with different cross-sections of the beam by Genetic algorithm (GA). The results show that the amount of steel weight in optimal state is less than its normal value. Therefore, by decreasing the height of the hole, the width, and height of cross-section, it will be reduced to the least amount.
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General

References
1. [1] Prentzas, E.G., "Behaviour and reinforcement of concrete beams with large rectangular apertures", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sheffield, UK, 1968.
2. [2] Mansur, M.A., Alwis, W.A.M., "Reinforced fibre concrete deep beams with web openings", Int. J. Cem. Compos. Lightweight Concr., vol. 6, 1984, p. 263-271. [DOI:10.1016/0262-5075(84)90021-6]
3. [3] Mansur, M.A., Tan, K.H., "Concrete beams with openings: analysis and design", Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press LLC, 1999.
4. [4] Fahmy, E.H., "Analysis of composite beams with rectangular web openings", J. Constr. Steel. Res., vol. 37, 1996, p. 47-62. [DOI:10.1016/0143-974X(95)00022-N]
5. [5] Mansur, M.A., "Effect of openings on the behaviour and strength of R/C beams in shear", Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 20, 1998, p. 477-486. [DOI:10.1016/S0958-9465(98)00030-4]
6. [6] Chin, S.C., Shafiq, N., Nuruddin, M.F., "FRP as strengthening material for Reinforced Concrete beams with openings- A review", KSCE. J. Civ. Eng., vol. 19, 2015, p. 213-219. [DOI:10.1007/s12205-011-0162-8]
7. [7] Abdalla, H. A., A. M., Torky, H. A. Haggag, Abu-Amirah, A.F., "Design Against Cracking at Openings in Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Composite Sheets", Compos. Struct., vol. 60, 2003, p. 197-204. [DOI:10.1016/S0263-8223(02)00305-7]
8. [8] Saleh, H., Abdouka, K., Al-Mahaidi, R., Kalfat, R., "Strengthening of slab-column connections against punching shear using FRP materials: state-of-the-art review", Aust. J. Struct. Eng., vol. 19(3), 2018, p. 188-206. [DOI:10.1080/13287982.2018.1462901]
9. [9] Zhang, T., Visintin, P., Oehlers, D.J., "Shear strength of RC beams without web reinforcement", Aust. J. Struct. Eng., vol. 17(1), 2016, p. 87-96. [DOI:10.1080/13287982.2015.1122502]
10. [10] Han, X., Liu, Z., "Numerical Simulation on the Form of Reinforcement of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Openings", Appl. Mech. Mater., vol. 444-445, 2014, p. 884-888. [DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.444-445.884]
11. [11] Aykac, B., Kalkan, I., Aykac, S., Egriboz, Y.E., "Flexural behavior of RC beams with regular square or circular web openings", Eng. Struct., vol. 56, 2013, p. 2165-2174. [DOI:10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.08.043]
12. [12] Ahmeda, A., Fayyadhb, M.M., Naganathana, S., Nasharuddina, K., "Reinforced concrete beams with web openings: A state of the art review", Mater. Des., vol. 40, 2012, p. 90-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2012.03.001]
13. [13] Lee, S.J., "Test of High Performance Reinforced Concrete Beams with Web Openings Using Fly-ash", Appl. Mech. Mater., 3 vol. 68-370, 2013, p. 1118-1122. [DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.368-370.1118]
14. [14] Mohamed, A.R., Shoukry, M.S., Saeed, J.M., "Prediction of the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams with web openings using the finite element method", Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 53, 2014, p. 329-339. [DOI:10.1016/j.aej.2014.03.001]
15. [15] Hassan, N.Z., Sherif, A.G., Zamarawy, A.H., "Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beams with opening strengthened using FRP", Ain Shams Eng.J., vol. 8(4), 2015, p. 531-537. [DOI:10.1016/j.asej.2015.10.011]
16. [16] Nikoo, M., Zarfam, P., Sayahpour, H., "Determination of compressive strength of concrete using Self Organization Feature Map (SOFM)", Eng. Comput., vol. 31, 2015, p. 113-121. [DOI:10.1007/s00366-013-0334-x]
17. [17] Sarıdemir, M., "Empirical modeling of splitting tensile strength from cylinder compressive strength of concrete by genetic programming", Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 38, 2011, p. 14257-14268. [DOI:10.1016/j.eswa.2011.04.239]
18. [18] Govindaraj, V., Ramasamy, J.V., "Optimum detailed design of reinforced concrete continuous beams using Genetic Algorithms", Comput. Struct., vol. 84, 2005, p. 34-48. [DOI:10.1016/j.compstruc.2005.09.001]
19. [19] Ghannadiasl, A., Gharibi Asl, A., "Optimization of consumption steel in non-uniform concrete beam", 1st National Conference on Applied Research in Structural Engineering and Construction Management, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, September 21-22 (in Persian), 2016.
20. [20] Islam, M.S., Rokonuzzaman, M., "Optimized design of foundations: an application of genetic algorithms", Aust. J. Civ. Eng., vol. 16(1), 2018, p. 46-52. [DOI:10.1080/14488353.2018.1445437]
21. [21] The 9th National Building Regulations, Fourth Edition, Design and performance of reinforcement Concrete Buildings, National office of Building Regulations.